Bible Studies

Some time ago I wrote a number of study guides about the Bible.  They are not studies of particular texts of the Bible but guides to study ABOUT the Bible.  They have the title ‘Towards an understanding of the Bible’.  There are 18 study guides in all.  If you wish you will be able to copy and print, as with all my website material.

I am trying to put them on my website but it might take some time, if indeed it is possible.   There are lots of different fonts and many pictures so it will take research on my part and hopefully a lot of help to achieve the aim of posting the whole 18 on.

If you visit my website, you may find some changes over the next few months but these will not affect the use of the website for other purposes like accessing the song lyrics or the content of my book.

I will inform you when it is finished or if I have given up!

Here’s hoping.   G&P  George.

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My book

I have just finished posting all the chapters of my book to my website, each separately.  You have to click on the title of the book ‘Starting all over again? Yes  or No?’, half way down my home page, and then go to chapter you wish to read or print out.  You are welcome to do both.   There are no copyright restrictions or limitations regarding the content of the book.   You may have to highlight the text on the website, copy it into a word document and then print the word document.  I had to do that.   I didn’t seem to be able to  print it direct from the website.

I have suggested ways in which the chapters can be used as a resource for small discussion group.   In the introduction I have suggested some questions that may be used.

Happy reading and/or discussing.  Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

Grace and Peace    George.


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A new book being added to my site

I have just starting adding my new book “Starting all over Again? Yes or No?” to the website “Singing a New Song”. This site will in time have other books or content I have been writing. It is all a work in progress; and you can see how it is going from this link:

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Dear Friends,

I apologise that I have been remiss regarding my blog but I intend to improve my performance posting, at least for the next few months, sections of my finished book.   To begin with, I suggest that you may use my posts as an initiator for small group discussion. How to possibly use this book. It may be possible for you to use this book as a study resource for small group discussion.  The first three chapters deal with the framework and teaching which the church gave me on what to believe about God, Humanity and the relationship between the two.   These chapters are linked and closely follow on from each other. They lead to my thoughts, in the fourth chapter, about the meaning of the Cross of Jesus in Fall/Redemption theology and its links to the Hebrew sacrificial system.  These first four chapters can be taken together as a unit and be used as an imitator for shared thinking and group discussion.     You could use these first chapters as the basis of a series of four meetings.  After this, you could let the group decide if it wishes to go further and continue to deal with the rest of the book or not. The next six chapters could be taken as monographs, dealing with separate issues.  These can be used separately as initiators of shared thinking and group discussion around the issue dealt with in the chapter. The last chapter is about Jesus and his teachings.   This chapter can be taken separately and again used as a thought starter prompting discussion in a small group.   For this chapter, Bibles will be helpful for each member to access.  Pre-reading of the material to be discussed at meetings is recommended.   If this is done group members are better placed to discuss and share their reactions.  My misgivings and numerous questions may give the opportunity for people to ‘come out’ with their own misgivings and questions.   This is not always easy for many people.  In each section, after having dealt with my misgivings, I try to give alternate ways of thinking and believing which I hope may lead to open discussion and sharing. You do not need to use every chapter, but only the ones the group members are interested in.  The sequence of use can also be the group’s decision.   If you use the book in this way, I suggest the maximum number in such a group should be 10.  A larger number could be a bit daunting for the more hesitant.  For those who are perceived to be a bit more articulate and out-going, the leader might even push them for further explanation, however this needs to be done with sensitivity. Here are some suggestions for questions.  You may have others. What did you think about what you have read?  Did anything ‘stand out’ for you, either positively or negatively? What, if any, are there things in it that trouble you?   What, if any, are there ideas in it that reflect your own thinking?  Have you had any new thoughts presented to you?   If so, what are they and how do you react? If you wished to challenge something you have read, what in particular would it be? Try to avoid ‘closed’ questions; i.e. those that can be answered by a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.   Always ask ‘open’ questions, which request a larger response, making some comment.  If you find discussion closing down, try ‘Going round the ring’.   This is the process of going to each member of the group in turn, asking for a response.   If you do this make very sure that to ‘Pass’ is always acceptable.   State this before beginning the process. If you have group discussion, limit the time of discussion to no more than 1½ hours and stick to that limit. An hour is probably more appropriate for most people who may not have participated in such an exercise.  It’s better to stop the discussion when group members are interested rather than to continue on when interest seems to be waning.   Give the group members the opportunity to decide where and when to meet, and how frequently.           I now list the sections which have been written regarding my serious faithful questioning.

1. The biblical presentation of God, similar in many ways to that which is presented in the past and current church services I attend.

2. The underlying emphasis of humanity being sinful and unworthy, both in the Bible and as presented in the liturgies used currently and in the past church services I have attended.

3. The impassable gulf between God and humanity caused by human sin.

4. The Hebrew sacrificial system which is biblically said to facilitate reconciliation between God and humans, and which helps create the basis of the church’s present Fall/Redemption theology.

5. The dualisms of Divinity/Humanity and Heaven/Earth and the supernatural dimension which underpin the whole Bible story and much church dogma.

6. The reverence and authority given to the Bible, the Christian sacred book.

7. Creation and a Creator.

8. The Garden of Eden story and gender bias promoting male domination.

9. Prayer and Praying.

10. Life after death.

11. The important emphasis on the church’s teachings ‘about’ Jesus compared with the teachings ‘of’ Jesus.

I will put on the next post the first section even though I think most of it has been posted before.    Grace and Peace   George.

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2.The underlying emphasis of humanity being sinful and unworthy, both in the Bible and as presented in the liturgies used currently and in the past church services I have attended;

This is my second major belief which I have been taught by the church.

This second fundamental which I seriously question could lead to depression if taken too personally.   I believe the dark side of humanity is tragic and so real.   Human sinfulness and unworthiness cannot be ignored because it is all too evident everywhere we look. Many good human initiatives fall well short of expectations because of greed, lust for power, unbridled hatred, the dominance of our super-ego or so many other human failings.   Fear, greed, our super-ego and lust for power prompt us to do horrendous things to our Earth home and to each other. Without wishing to absolve personal responsibility, I think these human emotions/attitudes are very often initiated and exacerbated by ignorance or peer pressure or the pressure of institutions and exclusive, elite communities to which we belong. Unfortunately I am sometimes sucked into this way of thinking and acting. When we think about it, we know we could do far better as a human race and we could also improve our own personal behaviour.


The Christian environment in which I have be brought up, has as part of its tradition, the Hebrew biblical pre-history stories in chapters 1-11 of Genesis. In these chapters humans are portrayed as disobedient and self-indulgent in the Garden of Eden story and then as murderous in the next story about Cain and Abel.   In this Hebrew pre-history, the beginnings of the biblical story, there is no story of human love and compassion.   There is not even a hint that humans have the ability or inclination to be concerned about one-another’s well-being. I find this a tragic omission.   It does not ring true to my experience of life.


Do I need to start all over again in my attitude to these Hebrew pre-history stories? I think so.   Much of their theological emphasis is too negative and gives me a lopsided view of human-beings.  Most meanings within the stories point in a direction, different to the direction I think Jesus points and that is very serious for me.   There is a positive side to the Genesis stories and I wish to retain this, however these positive comments have to do with the image of God presented and not human-beings. With the continued importance in Christian teachings given to the story of the Fall (Garden of Eden story), it is no wonder to me that Augustine, followed by Luther and Calvin, taught that humans were utterly depraved from conception.   I think this doctrine is utterly depraved! I don’t need this unbalanced Hebrew tradition to be a follower of Jesus.   I faithfully reject it.


Human sin and unworthiness seem to be the driving force behind God’s biblical activity. From the biblical story, much of God’s activity is motivated by his love but this loving activity seems to be made necessary because of human sin and unworthiness. Using biblical imagery, one could ask the question; “Without sin, would God have sent his Son to Earth? Could it have been pointless, unnecessary?” Jesus, I have been told, was central in God’s Plan of Salvation.


In church services I have attended over 80 or more years, I have never been asked to participate in a prayer which gives thanks for my virtue or good behaviour.   Do I/we exhibit none of this?   I am told to be careful lest I slip into pride. I/we are led in liturgies very Sunday to plead many times for the mercy of God for my/our wrong doing, my/our lack of love and care for others, etc., etc. I don’t really think I/we are likely to slip into pride and remain there, especially during these liturgies.


In traditional church thought and language, I am told indirectly that the first emotion I should have when coming into the presence of God, should be a feeling of guilt and unworthiness.   This, it seems to me, is why the prayer of confession in the traditional church service, comes immediately after the liturgies of praise and adoration.  I am in the presence of perfect holiness and have no right to be there, so I should recognise this and be contrite/penitent.   I acknowledge that these emotions are appropriate and necessary but I wish there could be some balance in church services, in how humanity is regarded; how I am led to regard myself and others.     Again, using traditional church images and language; Should not the first emotion we have when coming into God’s presence, be joy?  Sometimes I feel little inviting warmth from the God I have been taught about.


I would like to be reminded of any hymn, just one, in our traditional hymnbooks that refers to human beings as being good, putting effort into and sometimes successfully living lives of virtue. Not one hymn comes to mind. So many refer to human-beings as members of Adam’s fallen race, unworthy and needing God’s forgiveness and mercy.   One I remember well from my past church experience, which was sung very often, has the words in each verse,


Before thy throne we sinners bend….


with a following request for God’s mercy and grace. God was away, on his throne, separate and distant and this God was pleaded with for forgiveness and mercy, neither being deserved.


I am reminded repeatedly in church services that the grace of God is a saving grace.   Why is it a saving grace? Apparently because I need to be saved continuously. What do I have to be saved from? I can only surmise that I need to be saved from punishment, rejection, the wrath of God or certainly from something that is not good or positive. I need to be saved from myself, my sin and unworthiness and its consequences. Again these emotions are not inappropriate but I still ask for some balance. God’s Plan of Salvation is necessary because of my/our unworthiness/sin. All this is driven by sin and the need to deal with it. I would like the driving force in my church experience to be love. Love is certainly very present in services I attend today, but sin, and dealing with it, seems to be dominant. Do I have to return home from church services feeling badly about myself even though I am forgiven and loved by God? Can I forgive myself?   One hymn I have reasonably recently learned and means a lot to me, is, Come as you are, No. 693 in Together in Song. I sometimes become emotional when singing it.   The middle verses are,


No need to fear; Love sets no limits;

No need to fear; love never ends.

Don’t run away shamed and disheartened;

Rest in my love; trust me again.


I came to call sinners, not just the righteous;

I came to bring peace; not to condemn;

Each time you fail to live by my promise,

Why do you think I’d love you the less.


I find the sentiments expressed poignant and personal, powerful and persuasive. I am pleased this hymn is in the hymnbook we use and I am pleased to sing it each time it is chosen. However, it is all about my unworthiness and in spite of this, God’s constant love. This affirmation about God in it is positive and powerful. The Bad News about me is countered by the Good News about God. Is there no Good News at all about me? I believe that numerous ordinary church-goers put tremendous and continuing effort into living virtuous lives as Jesus’ disciples. Do we always fail miserably or could this effort and the success of sometimes living a virtuous life be affirmed and praised, at least occasionally? It is my experience that it hardly ever is.   I believe it should be.


So what now for me?

Having done a lot of clearing out again, I wish to change my emphasis and remind myself of the injunction in Philippians 4:8 as being an appropriate and wholesome attitude to life.

Finally brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honourable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is gracious, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things.


My belief is that humans are basically good but of course capable of evil in the extreme.  As I have previously asserted, God Within gives us all a positive divine dimension.   God Within is lived out in a million places by millions of people in millions of unreported human encounters.   These loving encounters are sometimes prompted in rebellion to the behaviour of the powerful, when they behave badly, irresponsibly or corruptly. Many of these encounters of love and compassion however, also happen quite spontaneously, especially in response to some particular and present human need.   Recently my wife had a serious fall in a public carpark.   When she fell, she chipped a front tooth and hurt one of her knees badly. She was crying and calling out for help. I have never seen her so distressed. Thankfully no bones were broken. Within a few seconds, literally, there were four strangers with us, all wanting to lend assistance. They were able to help and for that, we were very thankful.   This demonstrated to me an example of what just about always happens when someone is in trouble like that.   It is ordinary and probably that is why it never gets into the TV news. It’s not sensational.   Thank goodness it’s ordinary. It happens all the time. Little people keep love alive.


Why do I think that humans are basically good? It is because I believe that God is inherent in all life, within in a way that human-beings can experience, appreciate and respond to. This God dimension, I suggest is not dependent on any particular set of creeds or beliefs, not especially evident in religious people, not the prior possession of any particular human group or culture, but universally inherent. Human goodness, the God dimension of humanity, is exposed, expressed and seen whenever love and compassion are lived. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that humans are spontaneously good and concerned for one another. I believe it is the millions of little people who produce this evidence. Why are there so many voluntary organisations which depend totally on the good will and effort of ordinary people?


I am certainly not saying that humans are in no need of forgiveness and reconciliation, but I am saying that this is not the whole story, as is suggested to me by the early Genesis stories and the hymns I am requested to sing in church services.   In my lyrics below, I suggest there is a praiseworthy side of humanity. So much spontaneous love and concern as well as premeditated love and concern is shown by human beings to other human beings with no thought of reward or even recognition.  Many may not call their behaviour, actions of love and concern, but it is there.   Recently I heard of a neighbour breaking a window of a house which was on fire, to rescue two elderly people trapped inside. This sort of thing often happens and this story is by no means an isolated occurrence. After the fire was put out and the two elderly people were safe and well, someone said to the neighbour who had risked his own life, that he was a hero. His reply was, “Well that’s a bit ridiculous. Anyone else would have done the same.” This sort of comment is made so often by ordinary people. Little people keep love alive. This is my experience in life and my beliefs need to reflect this.


From my lyrics:- 8

Humans Do Amazing Things


When surrounded with adversity

Humans do amazing things.

When struck down by grim calamity

Humans do amazing things.

Strangers risk their lives to rescue;

Danger ignored; the trapped must be freed;

People are of priceless value;

All to help each one in need.


I was speaking to one of my friends the other day and asked her about what she was doing.   We will call her name Sue. She said she was putting a lot of her time into helping refugees; Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar who have been fortunate enough to come to Australia and settle here.   She said she helped with English language learning classes on a weekly basis and recently has bought and made available sewing machines to some of the women who wish to learn how to make their own clothes, etc.   She said it took a lot of time and effort from her, because all sewing machines are different and she had to learn how to use them before she could teach anyone else.   Even though she sometimes got worn out with their many and varied requests for help, she said she loved it all.   “Sometimes the children call me Mother.”   I do not believe she told me all this to get praise from me but she told me just in answer to my question.   She was telling me about her life and activities. However, I felt inspired. What a wonderful way to spend one’s life. Little people keep love alive. In different words and from my theological background, I wish to say, “The kingdom of God is alive and well.”


And again from my lyrics:- 9

The beauty within us


The beauty within us – the impulse to care

Is God’s image planted, of which we are heir;

For friend and for stranger when need is severe

Our heart gives attention; our help is sincere.

When we heed others’ need

And no matter how small,

When we heed others’ need

We respond to God’s call;

With God deep within us, our spirit is bold;

The Christ is then present; his love we unfold.


I believe there is an innate goodness in human-beings, God Within, and if we decide to let it, it shines so brightly.

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So what now?

Having cleared out what I perceive to be the anthropomorphic, person-ised, separate and away as well as the violent image of God, I have moved away from some of the major beliefs about God which I have been taught and held for many years. For me now, God is also no longer all-powerful and in control of everything. All these categories of thinking are no longer relevant to me when speaking of God. All this is a huge move for me and there is a tremendous amount of filling in of empty spaces that needs to be done.


I begin by saying that my present beliefs as panentheistic.   I understand panentheism as the belief that God is in everything and everything is in God.


This sets a completely new path for me, from which to view reality, the cosmos, humanity and the meaning of everything, including Jesus and his cross. This supersedes any anthropomorphic image of God. It replaces what I understand to be, the misleading idea about the separation of God from humanity – God being away and distinct. It also precludes any violence in God. God being in control becomes irrelevant. This is so, so different to what I have believed previously, however, I still have connections with the Bible and some of what I experience in the current church services I attend.


I replace the anthropomorphic images of God with more complicated, mystical images of spirit and energy. These are somewhat abstract, and thus maybe a little more difficult to understand.   I am reminded of John 4:24 teaching that Jesus said,


God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and in truth.


Certainly not the easiest to comprehend. In this quotation, God is not a spirit, but spirit. For me, the two are different and the quote points beyond the dominant, person-ised, biblical images of God.


I do not find the word energy in my biblical concordance, so I’m not sure that this concept is present in the biblical way of thinking at all. Energy is not a first century concept but it is central to modern thinking, particularly with the explosion of scientific information and the current way of understanding the cosmos.


I also find it significant that in 1 John 4:16a God is referred to as love, and not a loving person.   Again, the two are very different for me. The first is mystically abstract but the second sounds very anthropomorphic.


Referring to some of my past church teachings, I think the writer of Psalm 139:7-9 may have been at least moving slightly towards the idea of panentheism when stating a conviction about the omni-presence of God; God being everywhere.


Wither shall I go from thy Spirit? Or wither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend to heaven, Thou art there!   If I make my bed is Sheol, Thou art there!   If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there thy hand shall hold me.


The psalmist speaks of God as present everywhere in the world in which we live.   God is present absolutely everywhere. With this, God is being de-localised and thus de-person-ised to a small extent. The sayings Gospel of Thomas, an early written gospel not found in the Canon of Scripture – the Bible as we now have it, has in Saying 77, Jesus said,


‘… Split a piece of wood; I am there. Lift up a stone, and you will find me there.’


This saying goes a bit further and in a slightly different direction than the Psalm, but I suggest it is along much the same lines.


I faithfully affirm all this but wish to go a lot further. I do not believe that God is present everywhere in the world as a separate Being, as the above quotes suggests, in a side-by-side association. I believe God is in the world/universe, inherent, united to it; in it as its divine dimension.   Ephesians 4:6 points to this.


One God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all…


This is God, more than omni-present. God is omni-inherent. The first suggests a side-by-side association whereas the second points towards a unity.


But even more please. For me, it is not only that God is in the universe, but also that the universe is in God. So I go further with panentheism, believing that I am in God. You are in God. Everybody and everything is in God. Quoting again the book of Acts17:28,


In him we live and move and have our being …


This quotation is stated by some commentators as being a quotation from Greek poetry, probably from a stoic philosopher, but the writer of the book of Acts uses it to affirm the theological emphasis that human life and experience is in God.


From my lyrics:- 1

In God we live and move and be


In God we live and move and be,

In God we have our place;

If we accept this for ourselves

Then love shines from our face.


In God we live and move and be,

In God have harmony;

We praise and celebrate with joy

This mystic unity.


The author of John’s Gospel in 14:9-10 has Jesus saying to Phillip,


Have I been so long with you and yet you do not know me, Phillip? He who has seen me has seen the Father; how can you say, “Show us the Father?” Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me?


‘I am in the Father and the Father in me’ is for me, a statement of unity, not a side-by side relationship. The Father is not with Jesus but in Jesus.


In the 1st Epistle of John 4:16b, the author goes even further, stating,


God is love; and he who abides in love abides in God and God abides in him.


For me, this quote is saying much the same thing about humanity, whereas the previous quote from the gospel speaks only of Jesus. I suggest that the two above quotations are by no means unique in the New Testament but are examples of an emerging theme. They address my problem of the God/Humanity separation.   Many times this in-ness is mentioned by the writers of the New Testament.


Luke in 17:21, when discussing matters with the Pharisees, Jesus says, The kingdom of God is within you. There are many times when the New Testament writers speak of God being in all, us being in Christ and Christ being in us; etc.


  • Acts 17:28, For in him we live and move and have our being.
  • Romans 12:5, So we, though many, are one body in Christ…
  • 2 Corinthians 5:17, Therefore if anyone is in Christ…
  • Galatians 2:20, I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me:…
  • Galatians 3:28, There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
  • Ephesians 3:17, and that Christ may dwell in your hearts…
  • Ephesians 4:6, One God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all.
  • Colossians 1:17, He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.


These texts invite me into a different approach when asking the question, “How can I understand my experience of God?”   I quote the above texts as examples of what I think is an emerging theme in the New Testament. It is interesting to me that the concept of God’s in-ness in us and our in-ness in God does not surface in the Old Testament, not remotely. Early in the Bible story, even to say the name of God could incur the death penalty.   This does not indicate a unity of God with humanity.


As always, analogies are deficient in some aspect of their use, but I go there to hopefully add a bit of meaning.   When I swim in the ocean I am totally surrounded by it, I am buoyed up by it, it is beneath me and above me. My movement is in the ocean.   The ocean is far bigger than that which is close to me. My experience of the ocean is very limited but that doesn’t mean the ocean is limited to my experience of it. Most of the ocean is distant from me but that does not mean the ocean is distant. It is totally present.   While I am in the ocean, many other things are also in the ocean; ships, other people, fish, etc., etc.   Their in-ness doesn’t alter nor lessen my in-ness and mine doesn’t diminish theirs. So I am in God but God is not limited to that experience.


Quoting again from Matthew Fox’s book, Original Blessing, in his chapter entitled Panentheism,


What is the solution to the killing of God and the losing of human soul? It is our moving from theism to panentheism. Now panentheism is not pantheism. Pantheism, which is a declared heresy because it robs God of transcendence, states that everything is God and God is everything.


 Fox continues,


Panentheism, on the other hand, is altogether orthodox and very fit for orthopraxis as well, for it slips in the little Greek word ‘en’ and thus means, ‘God is in everything and everything is in God.’   This experience of the presence of God in our depth and Dabhar (the creative energy ‘Word’ of God) in all the blessings and suffering of life is a mystical understanding of God.


God Beyond, God Within and God Between.


God, for me, is the spirit dimension, inherent in everything and everyone, including me and you and is a path of understanding which goes in the opposite direction to the away God who is separate and distinct.   To try to unpack this belief, I speak of God Beyond, God Within, and God Between. When I speak of God Beyond, God Within and God Between I am not talking about the nature, the substance or the essence of a Being I might call God.   I am trying to indicate how I experience and how I respond to the Mystery, the Divine, the Sacred, the More – God.  The experiences I include, are experiences of the world beyond me, the internal experiences of personal decision making, self-examination and self-talk as well as the experiences I have with other people. So the phrases God beyond me, God within me and God between me and others make sense to me.


I need to emphasise that, for me, these are not three Gods. I have little connection with the orthodox Trinity because, for me, God Beyond is not God the Father; God Within in not the Holy Spirit and God Between is not Jesus. God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I have been taught, are all persons in the orthodox Trinity whereas God Beyond, God Within and God Between are phrases by which I point to the different ways I experience God.


If what follows makes me an atheist or heretic, so be it.   Strictly speaking I would class myself as an a-theist, i.e. one who is not a theist. However, I believe in God; the ultimate Mystery. I am a panentheist so in one sense of that word, I suppose I am a theist.   What follows include statements of my beliefs, as clear as I can make them, but which may not be easily understood.   My beliefs are all so filled with Mystery that I am not sure I understand them myself!


I don’t think I am very different from some other ordinary church-goers when I say that my beliefs begin and end in Mystery, with a capital M.   Mystery is everywhere; in the minute micro universe to the gigantic limitless universe, in my very complex personal life and life beyond me.   What wonders have we yet to discover about the atom and molecules on which all our physical universe is partly built?   What secrets are hidden in the millions of out there galaxies which may never be understood? How can I understand myself and my behaviour? What is time? What prompts me to forgive? Why do I relish eating a banana every morning but my eldest daughter hates them? Why is there gravity? Why am I here?   Who or what is God?   Mystery everywhere. I am bewildered.   Is there no certainty to which I can cling?


I have to try to respond to this all-pervading Mystery as best I can with beliefs that help me to make some sense of it all and help me to live life abundantly.


From my lyrics:- 2

God is mystery


God in all galaxies beyond,

Yet in our hearts and we respond;

God of mystery shares our history;

God in the gentle breeze that blows;

In every creature as it grows;

God gives glory to our story;

God of mystery shares our history;



In God we live and move and be;

In God we find our destiny;

God of mystery shares our history;

God is the love that fills our soul:

God is the love that makes us whole;

God gives glory to our story;

God of mystery shares our history;



So I try to limit my comments to my personal experience of life. Where and how does God fit into my life, or as importantly with my present beliefs, Where and how do I fit into God?


If I build my beliefs on my experience of life, I realise my experiences are extremely limited. It is our brain and mind that interprets all of our experiences and it does so in the context of our personal history, our prejudices, our environment, our reading and thinking, our knowledge and intellect, our world view as well as our specific predispositions at the time of our experience.   All this is subjective but that is the only way I think we can approach this subject.   To speak of a revelation or some objective knowledge we may think we have been given, is still to understand this in the way our brain and mind filters, appraises and interprets it.   It can be no other way.


If I take living and moving and having my being in God very seriously, then I am never separate from God. If I take God being over all and through all and in all very seriously, then God is never separate from me.    All my human experience is in God and God is in it all. I am never separate from God and God is never separate from me.


When standing in awe of nature and looking at the stars of the universe, I experience God’s awesomeness. When receiving forgiveness and love from others, I experience God’s loving. When feeling I need to visit someone, in knowing that I need to apologise, in setting the priorities of my life, I experience God in the challenging. When visiting people in nursing homes I am confronted with the God’s vulnerability. In my fearful reactions to the stormy fury of nature and the speed of comets and meteorites, I experience God in nature’s power. In my peaceful reactions to the growth of trees and the twinkling of the sun on the surface of rippling water, I experience God’s quietness. In passively accepting the never ceasing movement of unnumbered electrons around an immeasurable number of nuclei of atoms, I am present to God’s energy. When I am with people who are sick or dying, I am confronted with God’s pain.   When trying to lift heavy weights, when walking slowly up a steep hill and when trying to swim against the tide, I am present to God’s force in the universe. In the evil deeds humans do to each other, I become aware of God’s sadness. When I act in a hurtful, irresponsible way, my experience is that I am the cause of God’s sadness; sadness not anger. In contemplation of the magic of my computer, I experience God’s minuteness and intricacy. When looking at a sunset, I am bewildered by God’s beauty.   When enjoying other people’s company I experience the joy of God’s company.


Most of this is very anthropomorphic talk but I am not speaking of God as a human or super-human but I am trying to express how I accept the experiences I have in life, as experiences of God. My experiences are anthropomorphic. They must be because I am human.


For me, God is known, identified in all these experiences and more, and they are all my experiences. These experiences and the recognition of them are my involvement in the Mystery, so when I have these and all other experiences I am experiencing God. This announces panentheism for me.


Because of the immense amount of baggage that comes with the word God, I am somewhat reluctant to use it at all, however with the prepositions Beyond, Within and Between following it, I think it is nearly permissible.


God beyond.


To unpack my beliefs in more detail, I begin with God Beyond. For me, God is in all. God Beyond is in all that exists. God Beyond is the divine dimension of all that is, including all that which is beyond me.   God Beyond is that which is not restricted to me but not distant from me.   Most of the universe is distant from me and in so far as that is the case, God Beyond is beyond, but in all of it.


So the phrase God Beyond is appropriate for me because nearly everything is beyond me. Other people, trees, ants, rocks, moon, stars, galaxies and most atoms, molecules, microbes and bacteria are outside, beyond me. Life is not limited to my life. There is much more.   Existence is not limited to my existence. There is much, much more.   Together with all that is, I too have God in my life, my moving and my being, but that does not limit God.   There is much more. God Beyond is my experience of God in everything that is beyond me.


My experience of God Beyond includes my observations of and encounters with all that which is beyond me. God being in all, is the divine dimension of all I observe and encounter in that which is beyond me. Whenever and whatever I observe, I am observing God Beyond. Whenever and whatever I encounter, I am encountering God Beyond.


God Beyond is my experience of the all-pervading creative energy sustaining all that is, whether there be only one or multiple universes. God Beyond is not limited to me, others and everything else that exists.   I, others, and everything else have limitations but, for me, God Beyond has none. God is the divine inherent dimension of all that is and more. I experience God Beyond as that life force, that inherent everlasting life-spirit-force of everything that happens, has happened and will happen. In my observations I experience God Beyond as life/energy force beyond me and it is evident everywhere in nature on Earth here and the cosmos out there. When I walk around my suburb I see numerous examples of it. One of the very small but common ones is weeds and grass pushing up into light and air from beneath concrete footpaths. They are probably looking for cracks through which they can emerge.   That’s just what they do!   My experience of God Beyond, is that this life force/energy is inherent. Bees swarming, rocks enduring, stars exploding, atoms in continuous internal energetic motion, animals, bugs and insects surviving and multiplying, clouds coming and going, the universe expanding at an ever increasing rate, all happening, all enduring, all living, all evolving, all moving, all in God and God is in it all.   Not necessarily good or bad.   Moral categories are irrelevant for a great deal of what I experience in God Beyond.     It’s just how things are! Everything has evolved the way it has. It is all in God and God is in all; God Beyond.


As I have intimated, much of what I experience in God Beyond has nothing to do with morality.   It is rather senseless for me to say, “The Moon loves the Earth.”   That is a nonsensical statement. Love has nothing to do with it. The moon and the Earth are what they are and that’s it. They have evolved that way. Apparently they are both essential for each other’s existence and continued survival. They have a gravitational relationship, not a love relationship.   It is like saying, “Orange likes going quickly.”   That also is an absurd sentence.   It is combining separate and different categories of thinking/speaking.   Orange has nothing to do with likes or dislikes.   It also doesn’t move.   We just don’t talk that way.   So it is, for me, with a lot of God Beyond.   Much of what is beyond me, just is, and has nothing to do with morality, what is good or bad, loving or not.   Morality, for me, has to do with God Within and God Between.   Morality comes into play when humanity is involved. More of that a little later.


Numerous processes needed to have happened in sequence and now be in place, for human life to come into existence.   It took thousands of millions of years for little me to emerge from the combination of atoms and molecules all of which are thousands of millions of years old and products of the Big Bang and/or exploding stars. They form me. What an evolutionary marvel! If all these thousands of processes did not happen in the sequence they did and how they did, I would not be here!   For me, this is a benevolent Mystery par excellence! Not that it all happened because I was the end result being sought or the purpose for it all happening. I think that might be a bit arrogant.   Rather it is that I happen to be part of the end result, maybe the inevitable result of evolutionary processes.


I experience God Beyond is that Mystery which keeps everything together. I experience being connected to everything, to everything which is other than me, beyond me. Amongst other things, evolution teaches me that.   When referring to His dear Son, the writer of Colossians in 1:17 states,


And he exists before all things, and all things are held together in him.


Giving this verse a free and expansive interpretation, God Beyond is my experience of this; connecting and holding together. Everything in the universe is interdependent.   Everything is connected and holds together because God is in all and all is in God; God Beyond.   I am and you are in the thick of it all and my understanding of evolution points to all this connectedness and interdependence.


Why do I feel guilty when there is so much inequality in the world?   Why do I feel happy, even tearful, when I hear of someone, a complete stranger, being revived and has come back to life after an accident? Because I am connected to all.   Why do I shrink from pictures on the TV of millions of refugees trying to survive, none of whom I know? Why am I delighted when I see dogs happily playing together? Because I am connected to all.   Why do I feel angry when I know some rich companies rip the system off by paying no tax?   Why do I sit in awe of a sunset? Why do I get motivated when I know I can do something to make the world a better place? Because I am connected; because I am part of the whole; because I am in the thick of it all!   God is in me and God is in all, holding everything together, me included.


The other day I had read to me a newspaper story of how some people smugglers, in order to escape being prosecuted, pushed people, even babies, off their boat into the Mediterranean Sea, to drown.   As the story continued the person reading to me was in tears. Why? Because she was connected. We all are in God Beyond.

My wife and I enjoy watching Australian Rules football on TV.   We are both somewhat addicted!   When the team we support wins a match we happily say, “We won!”   Strictly speaking we probably had nothing to do with it.   But we say “We”. Why?   Because we are connected.


For me, it can be no other way.   Being human is being connected in God; God Beyond.


These may be regarded as trivial examples and maybe they are but I think they point to something far deeper; that we really are connected to all the universe. I am in the universe and the universe is in me.   Psychological explanations can and are given for the feelings we have and I don’t wish to ignore these but I am still comfortable with bringing God Beyond into the picture. I/We can escape and not care about that which is beyond me/us, but I believe that is to deny my/our human-ness.   My belief is that God Beyond is the Mystery in which all things hold together. God Beyond is in all and I am there, experiencing it.   I encounter God Beyond as Source of the glue, the energy that keeps neutrons, electrons, positrons, protons, etc. together in the atom; is Source of the glue that keeps atoms together in molecules, molecules in compounds, compounds in materials, materials in structures in planetary, solar and galaxy systems, etc., etc. All together. This is my experience of the world, the universe; God Beyond.


For me, God Beyond can never be thought of as a person.   That is far too limiting, far too parochial, far too anthropomorphic.


A major statement of my belief now is, “My experience of God Beyond is of a totally limitless inherent Mystery in all”.


From my lyrics:- 3

God Beyond


Time and space are both a mystery;

God is beyond.

Limitless yet with a history;

God is beyond.

When we think of human millions,

Study galaxies in billions,

When we ponder stars in trillions,

God is beyond.


In nonillions*, yet are living;

God is beyond;

Tiny cells are unforgiving;

God is beyond;

Genes bequeath to us our hist’ry,

Germs attack and give no mercy,

Microscopic – all is mystery;

God is beyond.


*A nonillion is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

There are at least 5 nonillion bacteria on the earth’s crust!



God Within


I have the human experience of God Within, the experience of God within me.   This is where I experience that God is love, all-encompassing and all-challenging, costly, surrounding love.


As soon as I think of God Within I am into the realms of ethics, behaviour and human relationships. God Within is an expression of my personal relationship, involvement, participation in God Beyond.   If I live and move and have my being in God and God lives and moves and has being in me, this announces God Within. There is a divine dimension to all humanity, my and your humanity included. This is universal and not the possession of just a few.


In a way, God Within is a paradox to what has gone before, about God Beyond, yet for me, it is not inconsistent with it. This paradox, even maybe a contradiction exists, in that while I have no control whatsoever over God Beyond, I certainly do have some control over God Within or at least my response to God Within.   I have little control/influence over my immediate environment, less over the environment further away from me and minuscule, if any control over the larger environment. I liken this to the life of a house fly and the control/influence it has on the whole Earth. Not a great deal, I suspect!   The same can be said of my life and the control/influence I have beyond my immediate environment even though I am connected to all of it.   Such is my lack of control/influence regarding my experience of God Beyond.


However, because of my ability to participate in decision making and thus have some control over my behaviour, I do have at least some control over my response to God Within. My experience of God Within does not obliterate my free will. I can, through my behaviour return to the universe the benevolence the universe has shown me or I can refuse to do so. In other words, if I decide to, I can do or not do unto others what is good and appropriate.   I can nurture life just as my life has been nurtured or refuse to do so.   I can, as part of an interdependent system, contribute or refuse to contribute. I can act responsibly with regard to all else or I can manipulate, abuse and destroy because it suits me or amuses me.   I can regard all else as being there for me without any thought that I also have a responsibility to be there for all else.


Even though God Within is within (supported by the comment in John’s Gospel: All that came to be was alive with his life. John 1:3.), God Beyond intrudes in my life as God Within. I don’t mean that the intrusion is from outside. I mean intrusion in terms of making a presence, which is already present, felt. Because I can involve myself in decision making, I can co-operate with this intrusion/influence or work against it. I can uncover it, let it be exposed or I can keep it suppressed, hidden and even inoperative.   This is my experience.


God Within is expressed in different ways in my living experiences.


When I pray, I am involved and God Within is my experience of God in me praying.

When I am thankful, I am involved and God Within is my experience of God in me being thankful.

When I love others, I am involved and God Within is my experience of God in me loving.

When I ask, seek, knock, I am involved and God Within is my experience of God in me doing these things.

When I do bad things, hurting others, I take responsibility for these and God Within is my experience of God in me being sad and wanting me to change, wanting me to listen to God Within and take heed.


With some faithful reappraisal, the Jesus Christ phenomenon gives me a picture of continuous human cooperation with God Within.   Jesus is the story of what God Within is all about, what God Within looks like when continuously exposed, uncovered from within humanity, by human decision.


From my lyrics:- 4

My God is in Jesus


My God is in Jesus; the gospel is telling

The story of one who was servant of all;

Whose love and compassion, so rich and so compelling,

Restores the broken-hearted, supports those who fall.


My God is in Jesus, who shares all our living;

From inside our being we know he is kind.

Compassion displayed in the power of his giving;

My God is in Jesus. Real love is defined.


God Within has free reign in Jesus. This is why Jesus is still so central to my beliefs.   When I think of God Within I immediately think of what Jesus said and did, of how he lived, loved and died; how he continues to live.


I think this might be what some of the passages in John’s gospel are about. In John 14:11a, the gospel writer relates Jesus having a conversation with his disciples. As I have said previously, the writer has Jesus saying,


Believe me when I say that I am in the Father and the Father in me….


This, I think, is the gospel writer saying for Jesus what I am trying to say for me and all humanity. The Father is in us or God is in us; God Within.


Jesus is the historical person around whom many faith statements have been uttered and thankfully many have been preserved in the four biblical gospels; there for all of us to read.   Some of these memories were embellished and some were eventually set in concrete, in church dogma and doctrine. This complex of the historical person together with the faith statements about him has evolved into what many ordinary church-goers understand as Jesus Christ.   The Jesus of History and the Christ of Faith are so entwined now that it is nearly impossible to separate the two. As Greg Jenks, in his book Jesus Then and Jesus Now says,


No critical research will ever succeed in capturing the historical Jesus…


That no longer concerns me. Together they form the complex that calls me to follow.   I try to. I have more to say about this in a later section about Jesus.


When the gospel writer in John 14:9b has Jesus saying,


He who has seen me has seen the Father.


I believe he is saying that Jesus’ life is to be seen as the picture of a continuous and total co-operation with God Within. Jesus totally exposes, uncovers God Within, so we are able to see the Father when looking at him.


This belief about Jesus makes him very available.   As the Second Person of the Trinity, who is seated at God’s right hand making intercession for humanity, even metaphorically, is quite unhelpful to me now. It emphasizes separation, the away-ness of God. This is why I dislike the lyrics of traditional Christmas carols so much. They speak of this separated God making a fleeting visit to Earth from who knows where, in the human form of Jesus. I wish to speak of the welling up from within humanity of God Within.   In Melbourne, Australia, at one of the meetings at which I led a discussion on my hymn lyrics, someone said that it was sad that I could not enjoy the poetry and imagery of the meeting of the realms, a coming together of God and humanity, which they said is championed by the Christmas carols. I replied that I couldn’t enjoy the traditional lyrics because, for me, most of them tell of a fundamentally non-existent movement. The movement for me is not a meeting but an exposure: not a coming together but a coming out.


God Within is lived out in a million places by millions of people in millions of unreported human encounters.   These encounters are sometimes prompted in rebellion to, or in compensation for the behaviour of the powerful, when they behave badly, irresponsibly or corruptly. Many of these encounters of love and compassion however, also happen quite spontaneously, especially in response to some particular and present human need.   Recently my wife had a serious fall in a public carpark.   When she fell, she chipped a front tooth and hurt one of her knees badly. She was crying and calling out for help. I have never seen her so distressed. Thankfully no bones were broken. Within a few seconds, literally, there were four strangers with us, all wanting to lend assistance. They were able to help and for that, we were very thankful.   This demonstrated to me an example of what just about always happens when someone is in trouble like that.   It is ordinary and probably that is why it never gets into the TV news. It’s not sensational.   It’s ordinary. Thank goodness it’s ordinary. It happens all the time. Little people keep love alive. The strangers were uncovering God Within.


Why do I think that humans are basically good? It is because I believe that God Within is inherent in all life, within in a way that human-beings can experience, appreciate and respond to. God Within, I suggest is not dependent on any particular set of creeds or beliefs, not especially evident in religious people, not the prior possession of any particular human group or culture, but universally inherent. God Within is exposed, expressed and seen whenever love and compassion are lived. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that humans are spontaneously good and concerned for one another.   I believe it is the millions of little people who produce this evidence.   Little people keep love alive. God within is everywhere uncovered and operative/influential.


Obviously the potential for both good and bad is present in all of us.   The extent to which we allow God Within to have influence, our potential for good is enhanced. Greed, fear and lust for power, I believe are significant aspects of human life which can corrupt us and so we keep God Within covered up and inoperative.


For me, there is another aspect of God Within that has little to do with ethics or behaviour but has to do with connectedness, as I have mentioned. God Within is the personal, individual aspect of God Beyond. I experience God Within as the Source of the glue that keeps me together. God Beyond is God Within keeping me connected within and connected to all else.   Scientists may call this glue gravity, magnetism, forces of attraction, etc.   For me, it is God Beyond, active and inherent in everything and as regards me, this is God Within.   In this connectedness, I experience God Within.


A major statement of my belief now is, “My experience of God Within is of a totally personally present and continuously inherent Mystery in me.”


Gretta Vosper in her book With or Without God says, (page 230) :-


Sit for just a moment.  When you think about it, you may find that you haven’t been thinking about god theistically – as a distinct, other being separate and definable – for a while.  You may think of god as a remote being for some of the time, but you also may have often thought of god as a feeling that makes you want to be the best person you can be. 

You get that feeling when you plunk a quarter into a stranger’s parking meter. You get that feeling when you talk to your kids about trying to make this world a better place, and they tell you some pretty good ideas they’ve come up with, all on their own. You get that feeling when you stop and talk to that other person who has been sitting all alone the whole time you have been visiting your mum in rehab.  All he does is smile at you and nod but that feeling is almost tangible.  You get that feeling when you pick up the package you were expecting, and in it you find that perfect gift you ordered for your child, your lover or yourself.  I invite you to think of that feeling as god.


From my lyrics:- 5                         

Love and…..                      


When we strive to be much better

Do not think that it is odd

To believe this urgent feeling

And its forcefulness is God.

Love ….. ….. ….. and challenge

Can be life reforming;

Love ….. ….. ….. and challenge

Are so life transforming.


When we share a tragic moment

Do not think that it is odd

To believe this tender feeling

And its sentiment is God.

Love ….. ….. ….. and kindness

Are, in life, enfolding;

Love ….. ….. ….. and kindness

Are, for us, upholding.


God Between


I have the human experience of God Between, the experience of God Between me and others.


God Between is very much a spirit concept for me.   I go straight to such concepts as the spirit of Christmas; abstract but very real, understood and experienced.


We speak quite easily about the spirit of Christmas or the spirit of generosity, etc.   I believe we can think in this way about the spirit of God.   What can be more holy than the spirit of reconciliation, the spirit of generosity, the spirit of forgiveness, the spirit of inclusiveness?


God Between also has something to do with the statement, A group is more than the sum of the individuals who comprise it. Something more is present than just the sum of all the individuals.


When God Within is uncovered, expressed by one person and interacts with another person, then a relationship of love, concern, compassion is created.   Love is given and received.   There is more at play than just the existence of the two separate individuals. There is a connection, an interplay, a movement back and forth. There is an action, a reaction, a re-reaction, a re-re-reaction and so on.   Something is going on between these two people.   When this occurs, it is what I mean by God Between.   God is inherent, is in this movement back and forth, and this movement is in God.   So in the wider community, when justice is done, when reconciliation is achieved, when good laws are passed, when diplomacy triumphs over hostility, when the hungry are fed, when the handicapped are noticed, when corruption is replaced with honesty, etc., I believe God Between is evident and experienced. When joy is shared, when affirmation is voiced and heard, when forgiveness is given and accepted, when encouragement is volunteered and received, when a smile is seen and returned, when lovers are both fulfilled, then something significant happens between people.   When this happens between people, it is for me an expression of God Between.


Whenever I visit anyone who is sick and in hospital, I just about always become extremely frustrated at not being able to find a convenient parking spot. So many cars! However, on some patient reflection I realise this situation is brought about by so many people who must be visiting sick friends or relatives.   This is evidence of God Within uncovered by those who are doing the visiting and I hope that both patients and visitors are experiencing God Between as the visit continues, when a love is given and received.


In some ways the relationship between God Within and God Between is for me, akin to the traditional relationship between the Second and Third persons of the orthodox Trinity.   John’s Gospel tells us that the Holy Spirit, the Third Person of this Trinity, would bring to mind all that Jesus, the Second Person of this Trinity, said. See John 14:26.   In somewhat like manner, God Between is that which is experienced when God Within is remembered and expressed between people and this, for me, is what Jesus points to.


A major statement of my belief now is, “My experience of God Between is of a totally and continuously involved inherent Mystery between people.”


Jesus, as I have said, is the prime example of God Within being uncovered, exposed and lived out.   God Between, on the other hand, has to do with God being inherent in what happens between humans as they relate to each other in a loving way.


From my lyrics:- 6

God Between


In community with others

God is between.

Prizing them like sisters, brothers,

God is between.

God involved in human action,

Spark of life in each reaction,

Core of every interaction

God is between.


When we learn to live together

God is between;

Harmonizing with each other,

God is between.

When corruption is deemed loathsome,

When our diff’rences are welcome,

When community is wholesome

God is between.


My beliefs in or about God have to do with a God-dynamic. By that I mean God Beyond, God Within and God Between is my experience of continuous movement in my life. God Beyond, inherent in all being, gluing together, encompassing; God Within, inherent in me prompting, influencing, guiding, sustaining; God Between, inherent in relationships, initiating, responding, connecting.   All are dynamic, on the move.   This is the way I experience God.   Experience is always on the move.   My experience of God is always on the move.


This is very anthropomorphic talk and maybe all of what has gone before also is. As such, it demonstrates the inadequacy of language and maybe my inadequacy in using it. I suppose this could suggest that I am excusing my anthropomorphic talk but still criticising the anthropomorphic image of God presented in the Bible.


I defend what I am saying because I submit that I am talking about my experiences of God and they must be anthropomorphic because I am human.   I am not trying to define God; God’s nature or essence. Like Dr Val Webb’s book title Catching water in a net or like trying to be noisy by clapping with one hand, whenever we talk of God, we may be talking nonsense.   But we continue to talk.


With beliefs that I now have, God is so much in everything, every time and every place that intervention is something that just doesn’t fit in the picture. Intervention presupposes separateness, as in the Genesis stories and in, what is for me, the strong emphasis of the whole biblical story. Involvement and inherent are words that make more sense to me. God is totally involved and inherent so to talk of intervention makes no sense to me at all.


If all this makes me to be not a Christian, so be it.   It certainly does not put me outside the group who would call themselves the followers of Jesus. Not for me anyway! Not that it worries me much what other people or I call myself. The quality of my life is what is important. Gretta Vosper’s book With or without God has a subtitle that encapsulates it beautifully;


the way we live is more important than what we believe.


These beliefs engender in me a reverence for all life, a wonderment at the cosmos, a positive attitude to my fellow humans, a challenge to love and live life the way it was meant to be loved and lived (like Jesus) and importantly, it compels a faithful replacement of the away, distinct, separate, outside God, with the ever present, surrounding, inherent, indwelling and involved God.


This means I have made a faithful rejection of many of my previous belief emphases and a joyful acceptance of new belief emphases. I wish in no way to suggest that, in order to have a reverence for all life, a wonderment at the cosmos, a positive attitude to one’s fellow humans and a challenge to love and live life the way it was meant to be loved and lived, one needs to have the same beliefs about God. All I am saying is, “This works for me at present.”


So my present Trinitarian faith statement goes something like this:-


I experience God Beyond as a totally limitless inherent Mystery in all.

I experience God Within as a totally personally present and continuously inherent Mystery in me.

I experience God Between as a totally and continuously involved inherent Mystery between people.


If these comments/ideas/beliefs are more acceptable to you when you omit the word God, that’s fine. I would still want to hold onto the three ideas of Mystery as being what I experience and what I think permeates all our existence. We might substitute the words goodness, love or creativity for God.   You may wish to substitute other words.


From my lyrics:- 7

God Beyond, Between, Within


God is beyond, within, between – not absent;

Not far away, not on some lofty throne;

God is beyond, within, between so constant;

No gulf to bridge to some angelic zone.

This is Good News; we know that we belong;

For God is love; for God is love.

This is Good News, the everlasting song;

For God is love. Yes! God is love.


In this part of my journey, in “Rekindling Christianity by Journeying with Jesus”, I think I have had to “start all over again”. Sad in a way, but for me, necessary.


The away, anthropomorphic theistic Creator/God has been replaced with an awesome inherent presence, a divine dimension to and in everything; God Beyond. The godly spirit within every person, that which prompts love and compassion in humanity, is the God dimension of every human being; God Within.    Jesus is the total expression of the uncovering of God Within.   The godly spirit being active in human relationships gives my relationships with others an added sacredness because God is inherent in all of them; God Between. And love is my experience of this fabulous Mystery.   I now have a set of beliefs that I can joyfully embrace, that make sense to me and challenge me to live abundantly.


The last two aspects of the clearing out, faithful rejection of what I have been taught about God have to do with God being violent and in total control. For me, the former is immoral, abhorrent, and the second is illogical and lacking common sense.


As I have said, the violent image of God is absent from my present experience of church but unfortunately not for all ordinary church-goers.   In church services I attend each Sunday, I am always pronounced Forgiven after the prayer of confession. This is stated as the Good News from God who loves me and others.   The hymn I quoted earlier, Come as you are, as well as many other hymns I sing in church services also proclaim this love.   The lines already quoted,


Each time you fail to live by my promise,

Why do you think I’d love you the less.


affirm this beautifully.


The Church services I attend do not contain any teachings of punishment from God, and there is no hint that God is violent.   Bible passages read, seldom, if ever, make reference to the violence of this God. Even though most of the hymns I am requested to sing reflect on my unworthiness, they never continue with God’s harsh judgement and punishment. God is love, is the controlling, significant part of my past church Christian education. It is constantly reiterated and emphasised. This, for me, more than counter-balances what much of the Bible teaches.   I can quite confidently say, “God is love and Love is God.”


The last rejection I make concerns God being in control of everything at all times. This raises theological contradictions and unsolvable moral dilemmas for me. The process of Cause and effect, makes a lot of sense to me and is consistent with my experience of life, but to talk of God’s control tries to make the incredibly complexity of life into something simple.   I believe this cannot be done.   But what then, for me, are the causes of things happening?


At least 3 things come into play for me. There may be others for you. My 3 are chance – good or bad fortune, the amoral forces of evolution and the cosmos and the actions of human beings.   Synergy, – the effect, greater than the sum of the parts that comes from the combined operation of a number of forces, persons or mechanisms – is just about always present.


Apparently one of the reasons why the Book of Ecclesiastes was nearly left out of the Old Testament was because of its perceived negative view of life.   Another reason may have been that the book gives voice to the possibility of chance having influence.   Ecclesiastes 9:11 states,


Again I saw that under the sun the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, nor bread to the wise, nor riches to the intelligent, nor favour to the men of skill; but time and chance happen to them all.


My Bible concordance records the word chance only 5 times in the whole Bible. 3 are inconsequential like in the story of the Good Samaritan.   In Luke 10:31 it states, Now by chance a priest was going down by that road…. A 4th speaks of the Ark of the Covenant going in a certain direction but that reference is somewhat nonsensical for me.


The inclusion of chance in biblical themes/emphases is not welcome. It calls into question the concept of God being in control of everything at all times. In my experience, chance is also not welcome in much theological discussion in the church today. It undermines the almighty power of God.


For me, chance, luck, good or bad fortune are sensible components of how to think about life. Chance/luck is operative. Lotteries is an obvious example that comes to mind. There are millions of others. Sometimes on the TV news, we hear of accidents involving a miraculous escape from injury.   Usually luck plays a part. So often we hear of a person’s house being burnt in a bushfire or utterly destroyed by a cyclone or tornado and the house next door was left undamaged. Nine times out of ten, I believe this is a matter of good or bad fortune. One could go on. Random events occur. For me, this is abundantly obvious. To attribute a miraculous escape or a devastating tragedy in an event, to God, is not only absurd for me, it is also postulating an immoral God.


Sometimes we can create our own luck to some extent. Not smoking might affect our chances of getting cancer.   By driving within the law, not being under the influence of drugs or alcohol when driving, may affect the possibility of having a car accident. Good diet may affect our health.   Our behaviour may affect our luck sometimes.


Secondly, the amoral forces of evolution and the cosmos are obviously operative.   I do not believe I earned the good and/or bad genes I inherited from my parents. I had nothing to do with it. They are the result of an amoral evolutionary process. It just happened. The happenings in nature caused by gravitational forces, shifts of the Earth’s tectonic plates, changing seasons, etc, are obvious parts of our human experience and the result of cosmic amoral processes.   Forces of evolution and of the cosmos are in place and for me, that’s just it. We are learning more about the synergetic effects of human behaviour on climate and vice-versa but we still have a long way to go. Evolution in the universe occurs without influence from us.


The third cause of things happening mentioned, is the most important for me.   I believe that human beings cause many things to happen or prevent them happening, both good and bad. I am speaking of things that happen to us on our planet home. When we talk of, making the world a better place, I believe we can actually do this.   Wars are human initiatives and undertaken by humans. Peace comes about because humans make it happen.   Killings and loving deeds of compassion are done by humans.   With investigations of mishaps we often hear the phrase, human error.   Sometimes a malfunction or misuse of a machine could play a part in what happens.


There are probably many other causes which affect the way reality works but I believe those mentioned above are operative. Synergy occurs continuously. Different causes, when working together or against each other, make things happen. Sometimes luck and the forces of nature can bring about happy or tragic results for human beings.   Much human activity is spent trying to unearth what causes things to happen.


This, to me, is common sense. I have skimmed over this issue very superficially. It is incredibly complex. Yes; but I think reality is just the way things are. Humans can sometimes make a difference but sometimes we can’t.

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A fourth issue about God.

An almighty God always in control of everything.


The God of the biblical witness, and as presented in current church liturgies, is almighty. This God either initiates all that happens, or at least allows all that happens, to happen. This is what I have been taught. Again, Genesis is very definite in announcing the God created all things and this is reinforced by John 1:3,


All things were made through him and without him was not anything made that was made.


Early in the biblical stories, it is God who wins wars to reward Israel’s faithfulness or this God punishes Israel with military defeat if it has been unfaithful.   This God is determinative in personal relationships even to the extent of preventing or activating pregnancies, see the story in Genesis 20.   This particular power of God is most notably present in the Virgin Mary story.   This is all present insurmountable difficulties for me.


This concept of God, I believe, is the real problem for the book of Job.   The real problem is not the question of the cause of Job’s ill fortune and suffering but the unquestioning belief that God causes everything.   For me, this concept of God leads to unsolvable theological contradictions.


If ordinary church-goers think very much about these issues, I believe their situation would be the same as mine. And I do not think putting these biblical concepts in their historical context erases the problem.   It will help us understand why the authors of the material wrote such things but that does not make what they wrote right or even helpful.   It is all still there and we are encouraged to read and study it all.   After all, it is in our sacred book.

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